目录

Linux问题汇总

bad interpreter: No such file or directory

在Windows环境下用Notepad++写了个shell脚本,上传到Linux平台后运行报错如下:

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/bin/sh^M: bad interpreter: No such file or directory

经过查阅资料才知道,这是文件格式导致的问题:使用vi/vim进入该shell文件,按下:进入末行模式,输入set ff查询文件格式,结果如下:

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fileformat=dos

不同的操作系统使用了不同的符号来换行,可以简单参考下下面的表格:

系统换行符
DOSCR/LF
UNIXLF
MACCR

如果通过Windows下的Git将文件提交到Linux上的服务器,也会收到换行符将被替换的消息通知。而解决方法也很简单,切换文件格式即可,如下:

通过vi/vim进入想要修改的文件,按下:进入末行模式,输入set fileformat=unix,接着按下ZZ或者按下shift + z + z或者输入:x或者:wq保存修改即可。

判断网络是否连通

有个通用命令,Windows和Linux都能使用,如下:

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ssh ip -v -p port

-v表示调试模式,会打印出具体日志。-p表示端口号。如果网络连通则会打印出来连接已建立Connection established。如下:

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C:\Users\10191>ssh localhost -v -p 1313
OpenSSH_for_Windows_8.1p1, LibreSSL 3.0.2
debug1: Connecting to localhost [::1] port 1313.
debug1: connect to address ::1 port 1313: Connection refused
debug1: Connecting to localhost [127.0.0.1] port 1313.
debug1: Connection established.
debug1: identity file C:\\Users\\10191/.ssh/id_rsa type 0
debug1: identity file C:\\Users\\10191/.ssh/id_rsa-cert type -1
debug1: identity file C:\\Users\\10191/.ssh/id_dsa type -1
debug1: identity file C:\\Users\\10191/.ssh/id_dsa-cert type -1
debug1: identity file C:\\Users\\10191/.ssh/id_ecdsa type -1
debug1: identity file C:\\Users\\10191/.ssh/id_ecdsa-cert type -1
debug1: identity file C:\\Users\\10191/.ssh/id_ed25519 type -1
debug1: identity file C:\\Users\\10191/.ssh/id_ed25519-cert type -1
debug1: identity file C:\\Users\\10191/.ssh/id_xmss type -1
debug1: identity file C:\\Users\\10191/.ssh/id_xmss-cert type -1
debug1: Local version string SSH-2.0-OpenSSH_for_Windows_8.1
debug1: kex_exchange_identification: banner line 0: HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request
debug1: kex_exchange_identification: banner line 1: Content-Type: text/plain; charset=utf-8
debug1: kex_exchange_identification: banner line 2: Connection: close
debug1: kex_exchange_identification: banner line 3:
kex_exchange_identification: Connection closed by remote host

查看和修改Linux的时区

查看当前时区

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date -R

修改设置Linux服务器时区

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// Linux通用
tzselect

// 仅限于RedHat Linux 和 CentOS
timeconfig

// 适用于Debian
dpkg-reconfigure tzdata

复制相应的时区文件,替换系统时区文件;或者创建链接文件

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cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/$主时区/$次时区 /etc/localtime

// demo:设置中国时区使用亚洲/上海(+8)
cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/Asia/Shanghai /etc/localtime

查看和修改Linux的时间

查看时间和日期

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date

设置时间和日期

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// 将系统日期设定成2009年11月3日的命令
date -s 11/03/2009

// 将系统时间设定成下午5点55分55秒的命令
date -s 17:55:55

将当前时间和日期写入BIOS,避免重启后失效

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hwclock -w

附注

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// 不加参数可以直接看到当前日期时间
date

// 不加参数可以直接看到本月月历
cal

vi/vim打开文件提示Found a swap file by the name

swap文件来源

在使用vi或vim命令打开一个文件后,就会产生一个.(filename).swp的文件。如果编辑完成之后,正常退出,那么这个swp文件就会被自动删除。但是如果在操作该文件时发生了异常中断(非正常退出),就会在当前目录下生成了一个对应的swp文件。

在Linux中,以.开头的文件都是隐藏文件,可以通过使用ll -a或者ls -a来查看。

而这种swp文件是隐藏文件,有两个作用:

  • 避免用多个程序编辑同一个文件时,产生两个不同的版本。
  • 非常规退出时,文件恢复。

删除swp文件

只要将swp文件删除,就不会再出现这个提示。可以通过rm命令来删除该文件。

禁止生成swp文件

如果想要禁止生成swp文件,可以通过修改vim的配置文件来实现。新建一个~/.vimrc文件,在文件中添加一行代码:

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set noswapfile

这样该配置就只会对当前用户生效,你也可以直接修改/etc/vimrc文件,效果是一样的。

通过swp文件来恢复文件

swp文件可以用来恢复文件,假如你有一个swp文件.my.ini.swp,可以通过以下命令来恢复:

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vi -r my.ini

恢复文件之后可以把swp文件删除,不然每次打开my.ini文件时都会提示。

Linux命令英文全称

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su:Swith user  切换用户,切换到root用户
cat: Concatenate  串联
uname: Unix name  系统名称
df: Disk free  空余硬盘
du: Disk usage 硬盘使用率
chown: Change owner 改变所有者
chgrp: Change group 改变用户组
ps:Process Status  进程状态
tar:Tape archive 解压文件
chmod: Change mode 改变模式
umount: Unmount 卸载
ldd:List dynamic dependencies 列出动态相依
insmod:Install module 安装模块
rmmod:Remove module 删除模块
lsmod:List module 列表模块
alias :Create your own name for a command
bash :GNU Bourne-Again Shell  linux内核 
grep:global regular expression print
httpd :Start Apache
ipcalc :Calculate IP information for a host
ping :Send ICMP ECHO_Request to network hosts
reboot: Restart your computer
sudo:Superuser do

/bin = BINaries 
/dev = DEVices 
/etc = ETCetera 
/lib = LIBrary 
/proc = PROCesses 
/sbin = Superuser BINaries 
/tmp = TeMPorary 
/usr = Unix Shared Resources 
/var = VARiable ? 
FIFO = First In, First Out 
GRUB = GRand Unified Bootloader 
IFS = Internal Field Seperators 
LILO = LInux LOader 
PS = Prompt String 
Perl = "Pratical Extraction and Report Language" = "Pathologically Eclectic Rubbish Lister" 
Tcl = Tool Command Language 
Tk = ToolKit 
VT = Video Terminal 
YaST = Yet Another Setup Tool 
apt = Advanced Packaging Tool 
ar = archiver 
as = assembler 
bash = Bourne Again SHell 
bc = Basic (Better) Calculator 
bg = BackGround 
cal = CALendar 
cat = CATenate 
cd = Change Directory 
chgrp = CHange GRouP 
chmod = CHange MODe 
chown = CHange OWNer 
chsh = CHange SHell 
cmp = compare 
cobra = Common Object Request Broker Architecture 
comm = common 
cp = CoPy 
cpio = CoPy In and Out 
cpp = C Pre Processor 
cups = Common Unix Printing System 
cvs = Current Version System 
dc = Desk Calculator 
dd = Disk Dump 
df = Disk Free 
diff = DIFFerence 
dmesg = diagnostic message 
du = Disk Usage 
ed = editor 
egrep = Extended GREP 
elf = Extensible Linking Format 
elm = ELectronic Mail 
emacs = Editor MACroS 
eval = EVALuate 
ex = EXtended 
exec = EXECute 
fd = file descriptors 
fg = ForeGround 
fgrep = Fixed GREP 
fmt = format 
fsck = File System ChecK 
fstab = FileSystem TABle 
fvwm = F*** Virtual Window Manager 
gawk = GNU AWK 
gpg = GNU Privacy Guard 
groff = GNU troff 
hal = Hardware Abstraction Layer 
joe = Joe's Own Editor 
ksh = Korn SHell 
lame = Lame Ain't an MP3 Encoder 
lex = LEXical analyser 
lisp = LISt Processing = Lots of Irritating Superfluous Parentheses 
ln = LiNk 
lpr = Line PRint 
ls = list 
lsof = LiSt Open Files 
m4 = Macro processor Version 4 
man = MANual pages 
mawk = Mike Brennan's AWK 
mc = Midnight Commander 
mkfs = MaKe FileSystem 
mknod = MaKe NODe 
motd = Message of The Day 
mozilla = MOsaic GodZILLa 
mtab = Mount TABle 
mv = MoVe 
nano = Nano's ANOther editor 
nawk = New AWK 
nl = Number of Lines 
nm = names 
nohup = No HangUP 
nroff = New ROFF 
od = Octal Dump 
passwd = PASSWorD 
pg = pager 
pico = PIne's message COmposition editor 
pine = "Program for Internet News & Email" = "Pine is not Elm" 
ping =  Packet InterNet Grouper 
pirntcap = PRINTer CAPability 
popd = POP Directory 
pr = pre 
printf = PRINT Formatted 
ps = Processes Status 
pty = pseudo tty 
pushd = PUSH Directory 
pwd = Print Working Directory 
rc = runcom = run command, shell 
rev = REVerse 
rm = ReMove 
rn = Read News 
roff = RunOFF 
rpm = RPM Package Manager = RedHat Package Manager 
rsh, rlogin, = Remote 
rxvt = ouR XVT 
sed = Stream EDitor 
seq = SEQuence 
shar = SHell ARchive 
slrn = S-Lang rn 
ssh = Secure SHell 
ssl = Secure Sockets Layer 
stty = Set TTY 
su = Substitute User 
svn = SubVersioN 
tar = Tape ARchive 
tcsh = TENEX C shell 
telnet = TEminaL over Network 
termcap = terminal capability 
terminfo = terminal information 
tr = traslate 
troff = Typesetter new ROFF 
tsort = Topological SORT 
tty = TeleTypewriter 
twm = Tom's Window Manager 
tz = TimeZone 
udev = Userspace DEV 
ulimit = User's LIMIT 
umask = User's MASK 
uniq = UNIQue 
vi = VIsual = Very Inconvenient 
vim = Vi IMproved 
wall = write all 
wc = Word Count 
wine = WINE Is Not an Emulator 
xargs = eXtended ARGuments 
xdm = X Display Manager 
xlfd = X Logical Font Description 
xmms = X Multimedia System 
xrdb = X Resources DataBase 
xwd = X Window Dump 
yacc = yet another compiler compiler

参考链接